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44 ways to judge the Obama era

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Washington (CNN)President Barack Obama, the 44th commander in chief of the United States, caps off eight years in office on January 20.

CNN gained unique access inside the White House to document President Barack Obama’s final days. Watch “The End: Inside the Last Days of the Obama White House” on Sunday Jan. 22, at 8 p.m. ET/PT.
Those eight years saw the nation grapple with the worst economic disaster since the Great Depression. The country’s response to that crisis helped reshape the economy and the makeup of the political system a few times over. And for every day of those eight years, the nation was at war — on multiple fronts, against multiple groups for multiple purposes.
All of these momentous changes during Obama’s presidency had very real effects on people across the country and the globe. And for each of these real-world impacts, there is a number.
CNN Money has charted the Obama economy while The New York Times has explored 2016 in numbers. Here, 44 statistics open a window to the 44th President’s expansive impact.

1. Unemployment

The recession cost many people their livelihood. The following years saw many of those same people gain it back. While part of the drop in unemployment came from people leaving the workforce, enough people have jobs now that, statistically speaking, employment has recovered from the darkest days of the economic crisis.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics‘ seasonally adjusted unemployment rate:
  • When Obama came into office during January 2009, the unemployment rate was 7.8%.
  • The highest point in the data set came in October 2009, when unemployment hit double digits at an even 10%.
  • The final unemployment report under Obama put the unemployment rate at 4.7% for December 2016.

    2. Oil

    Due in part to a revolution in domestic fossil fuels and massive oil production overseas, oil and gas have been pretty cheap for some of Obama’s presidency.
    Here’s what the situation looks like.

    3. The stock market

    Following years of upward climb and a rally after President-elect Donald Trump’s electoral victory, stocks are near record highs.
    Here’s stock market performance as of January 3, 2017:

    4. Down-ballot races

    Obama’s election coincided with Democratic victories across the nation and the strong 2008 showing built on the party’s successes in 2006. But as the years went on, the situation virtually reversed itself. Obama will exit office with the Republican Party resurgent on the state and federal levels.
    Here’s the breakdown for state government, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures:

    Here’s the breakdown for the US Congress, according to the Senate and House of Representatives.

    5. Opioid crisis

    Deaths from opioid-related overdose deaths have been on the rise. More people are dying from overdoses on heroin and prescription pain medicine like oxycodone and fentanyl.
    The National Center on Health Statistics and CDC WONDER report the number of opioid-related overdose deaths nationwide:

    6. Pot laws

      States with legal marijuana or cannabis products have blossomed under Obama. When he took office, recreational marijuana wasn’t legal in any state.
      Here’s what marijuana legalization looks like now, with information compiled by CNN Health:
      • Recreational: 8 states + the District of Columbia
      • Medical: 19 states
      • Medical CBD: 11 states

      7. Medicaid expansion

      The Affordable Care Act set aside funding for states to expand Medicaid — a government health care program for the poorest Americans. But the process became something of a tussle with state governments and many of their Republican leaders. By the end of Obama’s presidency, only the slim majority of states had opted to expand Medicaid.
      The District of Columbia and 31 states expanded Medicaid, per the Kaiser Family Foundation.

      8. Insurance coverage

      As the economy recovered and the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare, reformed the health care market, more people had health insurance coverage.
      Here’s the total percentage of people without insurance, according to the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey:

      9. National debt

      By the end of Obama’s presidency, government debt had nearly doubled to about $20 trillion.
      To be specific, the Treasury Department as of January 13, 2017, pegged the total public debt outstanding at $19,940,614,376,504.40.

      10. Deportation

      Trump said during his campaign that he’d create a special force to deport undocumented immigrants. Although Obama criticized Trump’s immigration proposals, he detained and deported millions of men, women and children. Obama’s administration deported the most people — 434,015 — in 2013.
        Here are total “removals” of people according to the Department of Homeland Security’s 2015 yearbook of immigration statistics (the most recent year for which data are available):

        11. Interest rates and inflation

        The Federal Reserve increased its interest rate by .25% in December 2016 for the second time since the financial crisis. The rates had been cut to zero in 2008. Many were concerned the Fed’s easy money policies would cause inflation to skyrocket. Instead, inflation hasn’t risen by much yet for years.
        Here’s the rate of inflation, per the Minneapolis Fed.

        12. The car industry

        General Motors (GM) was down to 75 cents a share in May 2009.
        As of January 3, 2017, GM’s stock was up to $35.15.

        13. Inequality

        The US has grown more unequal over the past few decades, including the past eight years.
        One commonly cited measure is the Gini index. The number ranges from zero to 1, and the higher the Gini index is, the more unequal the distribution of income is.
        According to the Census, it was .469 in 2009 and .4817 in 2017.
        Another way to look at it comes from a recent study by economists Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman.
        The bottom half of earners have seen their pre-tax incomes fall while the highest earners have seen a fairly steady rise.

        14. Wage gap

        Debate abounds over how and why incomes vary by gender and whether the wage gap can fairly be said to exist. However, men and women, as well as people of different races, all have much different pay.
        Here are the median weekly earnings for employed, full-time wage and salary workers in 2015, with an overall average of $809, per the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

          15. Economic growth

          Following the dips in growth that marked the recession, the economy slowly and steadily rebounded. Many, including Trump, have said observed rates of growth are far too low.
          Here’s annual GDP growth, from the World Bank:

          16. Bills vetoed and signed

          During Obama’s tenure, he vetoed a total of 12 bills. Only one of those vetoes, the bill that would allow the families of those killed in the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks to sue Saudi Arabia for any role in the plot, was overridden by Congress and passed into law.
          Since 2009, 1,294 bills were signed into law that dealt with everything from the economy to foreign policy to health care, according to GovTrack.

          17. Homeless veterans

          The Obama administration put forth “an aggressive strategy to end veteran homelessness” in 2010 as part of its overall plan to combat homelessness in the US. The White House reports overall veteran homelessness decreased by 36% since 2010. There have been about 90,000 vouchers from 2008-16 to help house homeless vets, according to the Military Times.

          18. Violent crimes

          From 2014-15, the nation saw a 3.9% increase in the estimated number of violent crimes — the FBI released its annual report for 2015 that said there were an estimated 1,197,704 violent crimes committed.

          19. Hate crimes

          Hate crime incidents in the US neared 6,000 in both 2013 and 2015.
          • 2015: 5,850 incidents, 6,885 offenses
          • 2014: 5,479 incidents, 6,418 offenses
          • 2013: 5,928 incidents, involving 6,933
          • 2012: 5,796 incidents, 6,718 offenses

            20. Childhood obesity rates

            Youth obesity rates in the United States have steadily risen over the few decades past, nearly tripling in the past 30 years — a trend first lady Michelle Obama worked to reverse during her time in the White House. The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act sought to give more than 50 million children an opportunity to eat healthier school meals.

            21. Police violence

            According to reporting done by The Washington Post, 991 people were shot dead by police in 2015. In 2016, the number decreased to 963, but there remained a number of high-profile cases that caught the country’s attention, including the shootings of Philando Castine and Alton Sterling.

            22. Job creation

            The Obama administration created 11.3 million jobs in eight years, and the economy added jobs for 75 straight months, a record that totals 6 years.
            More jobs were created under Obama than under George W. Bush, who only created 2.1 million jobs. However, Obama fell short of Bill Clinton and Ronald Reagan, who saw 22.9 million and 15.9 million jobs created, respectively, under their presidencies.

            23. Carbon emissions

            Obama made combating climate change and promoting efficient sources of energy a key aspect of his presidency. With a 9.4% decrease in carbon emissions from 2008-15, he made progress toward his goal of a cleaner environment, according to the White House.

            24. Countries visited and trips abroad

            According to the State Department, Obama took 52 trips abroad and visited 58 countries, plus the West Bank zone, during his presidency. The countries he visited most were France and Germany, both of which he traveled to six times. He visited five of the seven continents, skipping over Australia and Antarctica.

            25. State dinners

            President Obama held 13 state dinners at the White House in his eight years, hosting 16 different countries. He hosted two for China, one while Hu Jintao was still in office in 2011 and one for Xi Jinping in 2015.
            The countries he hosted include:

            26. Price of homes

            Obama saw the average price of home rise to $305,400 by November 2016, according to the US Census Bureau. Before the economic crash, the all-time high had been $262,600 in March 2007.

            27. Home ownership rate

            According to US Census data, home ownership rates have decreased by 4% under Obama. When he took office in January 2009, the home ownership rate stood at 67.3%. Now, upon leaving office, the figure stands at 63.5%.

            28. Life expectancy

            Life expectancy has remained fairly steady under Obama. However, there was a statistically significant drop of 0.1 years from 2015 to 2016, bringing life expectancy down to 78.8 years currently as he leaves office.

            29. People receiving food stamps

            The number of people receiving food stamps has increased significantly under Obama, according to the USDA.
            When he was elected in 2008, 28,223,000 people were receiving food stamps.
            In 2016, 44,219,000 people received food stamps — an increase of nearly 16 million people.

            30. Troops in Afghanistan

            Although Obama has vastly reduced the number of troops in Afghanistan during his time in office, he has failed to withdraw all American troops from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan.
            When Obama took office in January 2009, there were 34,400 US troops in Afghanistan, according to the State Department.
            As of December 2016, there were still 9,800 troops left.

            31. Prisoners at Guantanamo Bay

            One day before the current president turns the White House over to the President-elect, the Pentagon announced four more inmates were transferred out of Guantanamo Bay.
            As of January 2017, 41 prisoners remain of the 242 detainees at the military prison when Obama came into office.
            Nine of those released have been “confirmed” to have returned to terrorist activities, according to a government report.
            Obama had pledged to close the controversial center within one year in an executive order he signed shortly after his inauguration in January 2009.

            32. Rounds of golf

            Obama hit the links 333 times since assuming the presidency, according to CBS News’ Mark Knoller, the unofficial White House statistician who pledged to track each and every round played by the commander in chief.
            While his critics have said this is too many rounds to play, his figure doesn’t come close to the amount played by Woodrow Wilson, who is said to have played 1,200 rounds while President.

            33. Executive orders

            Obama issued 249 executive orders, the third-lowest of any president since Theodore Roosevelt.

            34. Median household income

            The median household income has both risen and fallen under Obama.
            In 2015, the median was $56,516, which was a 5.2% increase from 2014. This was also the first increase in median income since 2007, before the economic crash.

            35. Consumer confidence

            Consumer confidence rose continuously under Obama to its highest level since August 2007 — before the Great Recession — according to the Consumer Confidence Index released by The Conference Board.
            In December 2016, the index was a high 113.7 — a stark difference to when fell as low as 25 during the recession, when Obama took office.

            36. Poverty

            The poverty rate in the United States in 2015 was 13.5%. This is down 1.2 percentage points from 14.8% in 2014. In 2015, there were 43.1 million people in poverty, 3.5 million fewer than in 2014.
            The 2015 poverty rate was 1 percentage point higher than in 2007, the year before the most recent recession.

            37. Birth rate

            The birth rate fell to 59.8 births per 1,000 women in 2016 under Obama.
            This marks the lowest birth rate since the government started keeping track in 1909, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

            38. Price of milk

            The price of milk decreased under Obama from $3.58/gallon when he took office in January 2009 to $3.28/gallon as of November 2016.
            After the Great Recession, milk prices rose and have fluctuated since the economy turned around. Prices have been going down steadily since the beginning of 2015, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

            39. Student loan debt

            2015 was a historic year for student loan debt. Students graduating with an undergraduate degree had on average $30,100 in loans, up 4% from 2014. Graduates who left college in 2009 when Obama assumed office averaged $24,000 in student loan debt, according to The Institute for College Access & Success.

            40. College tuition

            In 2016, the average college tuition increased by 2.4%. In 2015, the average private college cost $43,921 compared to $34,132 in 2008.

            41. US citizen deaths overseas from State-defined terrorism

            • The State Department recorded 80 US citizens killed by “terrorist action” from January 2009-June 2016 in Afghanistan.
            • State recorded two US citizens by “terrorist action” in Iraq during the same time period.
            • In total, State reported 115 citizens killed by “terrorist action” from the beginning of Obama’s presidency to the latest date for which data are available.

            42. US active military involvement

            In 2016, according to the Council on Foreign Relations, the US dropped 26,172 bombs during the course of 2016. But CFR says that number is “undoubtedly low, considering reliable data is only available for airstrikes in Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, and Libya, and a single “strike,” according to the Pentagon’s definition, can involve multiple bombs or munitions.” This number increased from 2015, according to CFR, where the estimate came to 23,144, which CFR also defined as a “probably slightly low” estimate.

            43. US drone strikes

            Obama was known as a leader who extensively utilized and expanded the country’s drone strike capabilities in fighting terrorism. The Bureau of Investigative Journalism and The Atlantic reported the Obama administration launched 372 drone strikes in Pakistan, 112 in Yemen and 19 in Somalia as of March 2016.

            44. Clemency

            In his final week as president, Obama commuted the bulk of Chelsea Manning’s sentence and pardoned Gen. James Cartwright, who were both accused of leaking information to the public. The same day, Obama commuted hundreds of non-violent drug offenders.
            Then the day before Trump’s inauguration, the White House announced hundreds more commutations.
            With those moves, Obama’s total acts of clemency — the president’s decisions to pardon or commute criminal sentences — stood well above his predecessors. By the White House’s tally, his total number of commutations outpaced “the past 13 presidents combined.”

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            Trump’s policies and how they’ll change America — in charts

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            (CNN)From his travel ban to his plan to repeal Obamacare, President Donald Trump’s policy proposals are already affecting some Americans but have the potential to change the fabric of the US.

            To what extent his policies will affect individual Americans is up for debate. The administration, for instance, disagrees with the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office’s report that estimates his health reform plan would see 24 million additional Americans go without health insurance within 10 years.
            Here’s a look at some estimates of how his policies will affect Americans.

              Health care

              Trump and House Speaker Paul Ryan are pushing legislation that would repeal key aspects of the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare.
              Changing the health insurance marketplace is a complicated business, and there is no universal agreement on how any legislation would affect coverage.
              But the Congressional Budget Office, the nonpartisan scorekeeper on Capitol Hill, released its best guess — the official score of the legislation — on Monday, and some of the numbers are quite large.


              From the day he announced his campaign, Trump made cracking down on undocumented immigration one of his signature issues.
              He pledged to round up and deport the millions of men, women and children who live in this country without documentation. He pledged to build a wall with Mexico and make the country pay for it. He also pledged to build a “big, beautiful door” in that wall to facilitate legal immigration.
              Shortly after taking office, Trump issued a broad executive order enforcing immigration law that calls for an end to sanctuary cities and a robust increase in resources to the Department of Homeland Security to increase the level of deportations.
              These moves could affect the more than 11 million estimated undocumented immigrants in the US. However, Trump has signaled a willingness to respect Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, a program that Obama started to offer legal status to people who came to the US as children and still live there.
              Meanwhile, the Trump administration has touted a major decrease in recorded illegal Southwest border crossings as evidence that the President has quickly changed the situation at the border.

              Federal hiring freeze

              The number of executive branch employees has floated around 2.7 million since the mid-1990s. With a goal of reducing that workforce, Trump imposed a freeze on new hires, which could cut the number of employees while increasing reliance on contractors.
              The White House said the freeze did not apply to the military, and Trump has called for an increase in defense spending.
              Trump took another action on immigration enforcement, and DHS guidance on that action said it would request 10,000 additional employees for Immigrations and Customs Enforcement and 5,000 new employees for Customs and Border Protection.

              The travel ban

              Trump’s executive order imposing a so-called travel ban has garnered global attention.
              The original order suspended the refugee program and temporarily halted travel to the US by citizens of seven majority-Muslim countries.

              People caught in the air during the rushed implementation of the order were detained at airports and some were flown back to the countries they flew in from. All in all, 746 individuals nationwide were detained, including green-card holders. According to Pew, people from these countries made over 900,000 entries to the US since 2005.
              A government lawyer said more than 100,000 visas had been revoked though later the same day, the State Department disputed the number, saying it was closer to 60,000.

              The executive order was halted in the court system, and after one ruling, Trump tweeted, “SEE YOU IN COURT!”
              Trump issued a new executive order targeting six Muslim-majority countries and putting in place a temporary ban on all refugees. The new ban doesn’t include Iraq and specifically exempts green-card holders and those with valid visas. The order, issued on March 6, is due to take effect on March 16.
              Even with the changes, aimed at avoiding legal challenges and smoothing implementation, the new order would affect millions directly.

              Wall Street

              Stocks have been on a tear since Trump was elected, climbing more than 14% since September in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The Nasdaq is up more than 11%, and the S&P 500 is up more than 10%. The Dow has risen from less than 18,000 points on Election Day to a peak of more than 21,000. It has since fallen below that marker, but it’s clear that Wall Street likes what it hears from Trump — both his promises to roll back regulations on businesses and his promise to reform the tax rate.
              That’s good news for anyone in the market — and with so many Americans reliant on IRAs and 401Ks to fund their retirement plans, that’s a large portion of the population. A little more than half of Americans — 52% — said they invest in the stock market, according to a Gallup survey in April 2016. That’s a large portion of the country but down from the high of 65% in Gallup’s surveys from 2007, before the Great Recession.

              Transgender students

              The Trump administration rescinded guidance from the Obama administration that protected the right of transgender students in public schools to use bathrooms corresponding with their gender identities.
              In 2016, the Department of Education said there were 50.4 million students in public schools, but as The New York Times noted, the number of transgender children has been “elusive” — in that no official data or agreed-upon measure exist.
              The Williams Institute at UCLA released a study in 2016 that found about 0.6% of US adults identified as transgender; another study from the institute in January 2017 estimated 0.7% of people ages 13 to 17 years old identified as transgender. However, these estimates may not be reflective of the population of transgender children in public schools.

              Private prisons

              Then-Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates last August directed the Bureau of Prisons to restrict its use of private prisons, a formal shift away from their use in federal incarceration.
              Quickly within his tenure, Attorney General Jeff Sessions reversed the Obama administration’s shift away from private prisons.
              The federal and state private prison populations have increased over the years, experiencing a small dip in the latter portion of the Obama administration.
              However, people incarcerated in private prisons make up only a tiny fraction of the federal and state prison populations. The guidance to the Bureau of Prisons would only affect federal prisoners.

              Although its impact on the overall prison population would be relatively small, Trump’s election ushered in a reversal of fortunes for the private prison industry. Following his election, CoreCivic — previously known as the Corrections Corporation of America — and the Geo Group saw their stocks rocket upward.

              The Yemen raid

              Just days into office, Trump greenlighted a major raid in Yemen with the stated goal of targeting al Qaeda. The raid has since become more controversial than most operations because of the death of Navy SEAL William “Ryan” Owens and reports of many civilian deaths, including the 8-year-old daughter of Anwar al-Awlaki. Drone strikes under Obama had previously killed Awlaki, a US citizen and al Qaeda spokesman, as well as Awlaki’s 16-year-old son.
              The US government said several other service members were injured in addition to Owens’ death. It also claimed to have killed 14 al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula fighters in the raid. Human Rights Watch has said at least 9 children were killed along with five other civilians.
              However, as Buzzfeed noted, confirmation of the total number of deaths and who they were does not yet exist — and may never exist.
              The United States has since executed dozens of strikes, saying that it did more than 30 in Yemen in one week.


              Trump moved to expedite the process holding up two major oil pipeline projects that have earned blowback from environmentalists and the communities affected by their construction.
              One is Keystone XL, a major project to transport oil from Canada through the US. Environmentalists railed against the project for years, while Big Oil and labor groups united in support of the project. Obama ultimately opposed the pipeline, but Trump reversed course.
              The other project is the Dakota Access Pipeline, which has enraged the Sioux Tribe at the Standing Rock reservation in North and South Dakota. The company working to build the pipeline has said the tribe will not be affected, but the tribe has said the pipeline poses a direct threat to their lives. A non-Native American community had successfully blocked the pipeline from being constructed through its territory.

              According to the pipeline’s site: “The Dakota Access Pipeline project will result in an estimated $156 million in sales and income taxes during construction, and $55 million in property taxes annually.”
              The Sioux tribe numbered about 8,500 people in 2015, and it stood in staunch opposition to the project, attracting protesters from around the country. At the peak of protests, the camp’s population climbed to as many as 10,000 people.


              The Trans-Pacific Partnership was a proposal among the governments of 13 Pacific-facing countries that sought to establish one harmonious free trade zone.
              The deal would have brought a plurality of the global economy under one umbrella, pointedly excluding China from coordination with many of its neighbors, and it built on North American Free Trade Agreement extensively. If the deal were ratified and to take effect, it could have been one of the most influential policy changes of the Obama administration.
              However, Obama faced steep resistance to the deal within his own party, and during the presidential election, both contenders for the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination — free trade skeptic Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who once called TPP “the gold standard” of trade deals — came out against it.
              While support for the deal crumbled within the Democratic Party, the largely pro-free trade Republican coalition began to rally around Trump, who has for years railed against free trade deals and cited the US trade deficit as a cause for concern.
              Quickly after taking office, Trump pulled the US out of the deal. Several member countries said in turn that they would have to abandon the TPP on their end as well, and Trump has said he will pursue bilateral trade agreements as well as a review of NAFTA.

              Bringing jobs back

              Trump has leaned into a few companies since the election, saying he is using his position to stop companies from off-shoring jobs and getting contractors to cut back on their prices.
              Trump said a Carrier worker reminded him of a promise he made to stop Carrier’s Indiana factory workers from being outsourced to Mexico. Alongside then-Indiana Gov. Mike Pence — now Trump’s vice president — Trump announced that he had saved the jobs. However, the workers’ union said Trump didn’t save all the jobs, just under 800. Trump attacked the union chief for speaking out, and some of the jobs are still on track to be outsourced or eliminated.
              Trump publicly aired grievances with the cost of some F-35 flight variants, and Lockheed in turn lowered the cost slightly of three of the joint strike fighters. All told, Lockheed said Trump had caused them to save the US $700 million on what is already the most expensive weapons project ever.
              Dow Chemical said it would create 100 new jobs and “repatriate” 100 others.
              Trump and his White House have also touted planned moves by GM, Ford, SoftBank, FiatChrysler, Amazon, Walmart, Intel and ExxonMobil. Some companies have credited Trump’s agenda for their plans while others haven’t commented on Trump at all.
              CNNMoney has a running fact check on these announcements.

              Other Obama-era rollbacks

              Republicans had for years protested Obama’s executive orders and regulatory actions as overreach, even warning of the specter of an “imperial presidency.”
              So newly empowered with control of both houses of Congress and the White House, Republicans in Washington moved swiftly to roll back Obama-era rules.
              Some were undone with the Congressional Review Act, a rarely invoked law that allows Congress to undo executive actions permanently. And other policy changes have come either from Trump’s pen or his administration’s agencies, many of which are now headed by people with radically different visions from their predecessors.
              Here is a list of rules either eliminated or under review:
              Stream protection rule
              This rule was meant to prevent waste materials from coal mines entering water sources. It had originally gone into effect on January 19, according to the Department of the Interior.
              Trump signed a bill ending the rule on February 16.
              Oil payment disclosure
              The SEC adopted the Disclosure of Payments by Resource Extraction Issuers rule on July 27, 2016. The rule required oil, natural gas and mineral companies to tell the SEC if they made payments to foreign governments. Supporters saw it as an anti-corruption measure while opponents, particularly in the energy sector, said it put US energy companies in a bad position relative to companies from other countries.
              Congress passed a bill blocking the rule in early February, and Trump signed it into law on February 14.
              Fiduciary rule — under review
              The Department of Labor unveiled the fiduciary rule, also known as the fiduciary standard, in April 2016 with an applicability date of April 10, 2017.
              It would require retirement advisers to always act in the best interest of their clients, regulating potential conflicts of interest for retirement advisers.
              Trump signed an executive order putting it under review on February 3.
              Mortgage rate cut
              One of the very first actions in the Trump administration was wiping out a Housing and Urban Development rule issued in the final days of the Obama administration.
              The rule creating a mortgage rate cut for people with low incomes would have gone into effect on January 27. On Inauguration Day, HUD issued a letter stopping it.
              Waters of the US — under review
              The EPA enacted a rule, effective on August 28, 2015, under the Clean Water Act that gave the government regulatory authority over waterways throughout the country.
              Trump signed an executive order reviewing the economic impact of the Waters of the United States rule at the end of February.
              Gun measure
              The Obama administration implemented a rule on December 19, 2016, aimed at preventing Americans with a mental illness from getting guns by sharing information with the national background check system. It said the rule would be effective January 18 with compliance not required until December 19, 2017.
              Trump signed a bill to eliminate it on February 28.
              Mexico City policy
              Implemented by former President Ronald Reagan in 1984, the Mexico City policy, or Global Gag Rule, blocks US funding to non-governmental organizations that perform or promote abortions. Since Reagan instituted the rule, it’s ping-ponged in and out of existence depending on the political party of the President.
              Obama rescinded the rule, and on January 23, Trump reinstituted it.
              Kaiser Family Foundation has a guide that outlines the history of the policy.
              Voting Rights Act lawsuit
              Under Obama, the Department of Justice battled rules it believed were in violation of the Voting Rights Act, which the Supreme Court ruled against in part.
              On February 27, Sessions’ DOJ shifted away from a legal battle against Texas SB 14, a voter ID law.
              Former Texas Gov. Rick Perry, now Trump’s energy secretary, signed the bill into law on May 27, 2011.
              The move offers an early sign of the wide gulf that could emerge between the DOJ under Obama and Trump. For example, the DOJ is not expected to pursue major civil rights suits against cities and their police departments as the Obama administration had done in Fergson, Missouri, and other locations.
              CORRECTION: A graphic in a previous version of this story incorrectly represented the number of people granted deferred action by the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. As of September 2016, officials had approved initial applications to the program from 752,154 people.

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              Oil Jumps as Saudis, Russia Favor Extending Output Deal to 2018

              Oil rallied after Saudi Arabia and Russia stoked expectations that production cuts might be extended for nine months.

              Futures closed at their highest in more than two weeks. While output curbs that started Jan. 1 are working, global inventories aren’t yet at the level targeted by OPEC and its allies, Saudi Energy Minister Khalid Al-Falih said Monday in Beijing alongside his Russian counterpart, Alexander Novak. The ministers agreed the deal should be extended through the first quarter of 2018 at the same volume of reductions, they said.

              "When Saudi Arabia and Russia come out together it sends a very strong signal to the market," Mike Wittner, head of commodities research at Societe Generale SA in New York, said by telephone. "With these two countries behind the extension of the accord, chances are very high that they will get all of OPEC behind it."

              The largest of the 24 producers that agreed to cut supply for six months are reaffirming their commitment to the deal amid growing doubts about its effectiveness so far. An increase in Libyan output, together with a surge in U.S. production and signs of recovery in Nigeria, may undercut OPEC’s strategy to re-balance the market and boost prices.

              West Texas Intermediate for June delivery climbed $1.01, or 2.1 percent, to $48.85 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange. It was the highest close since April 28. Total volume traded was about 38 percent of the 100-day average.

              Brent for July settlement rose 98 cents, or 1.9 percent, to $51.82 a barrel on the London-based ICE Futures Europe exchange. It was also the highest close since April 28. The global benchmark crude ended the session at a $2.66 premium to July WTI.

              Money managers have cut their bets on rising WTI and Brent prices back to where they were before OPEC agreed to pare output.

              That will "set the stage for the rally," Tamar Essner, a New York-based energy analyst at Nasdaq Inc., said by telephone. "Nobody wants to be short going into the OPEC meeting."

              Extending the cuts at already agreed-upon volumes is needed to reach the goal of trimming global stockpiles to the five-year average, the energy ministers of the world’s biggest oil producers said in a joint press conference. They will present their view at a Vienna summit of OPEC and other exporters on May 25.

              “Preliminary consultations show that everybody is committed” to the output agreement, said Novak. “I don’t see reasons for any country to quit.”

              OPEC members agreed in November to cut output by 1.2 million barrels a day. Several non-members, including Russia, reached an accord in December to contribute a combined 600,000 barrels a day of reductions.

              Not everyone is on board yet. Kazakhstan, the biggest producer in the former Soviet Union after Russia, isn’t ready to join an extended accord automatically, its Energy Minister Kanat Bozumbayev said Monday, according to Interfax. The Central Asian nation will discuss its level of participation at the Vienna gatherings on May 24 and 25, the news service reported, citing the minister.

              Powerful Signal

              "It’s a powerful signal when Saudi Arabia and Russia come out together," Essner said. "They are the most important countries taking part and without their agreement you would not be able to get other countries to come onboard."

              While OPEC and allies are cutting production, U.S. output has risen to the highest level since August 2015 and is poised to climb further as explorers stage the longest shale drilling ramp-up since 2011.

              "This is bullish because they are going to extend the cuts longer than was expected," Bill O’Grady, chief market strategist at Confluence Investment Management in St. Louis, which oversees $3.4 billion, said by phone. "It’s also bullish for oil producers here. They will keep investing, drilling and building pipelines in the U.S."

              Oil-market news:

              • Libya is ratcheting up oil output with less than two weeks to go before the OPEC meeting.
              • Crude output at major U.S. shale plays is projected to rise to around 5.4 million barrels a day in June, highest since May 2015, according to EIA’s monthly Drilling Productivity Report
              • Brazil oil giant Petroleo Brasileiro SA is taking advantage of a drop in borrowing costs to sell dollar-denominated bonds.

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